The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck, just above the collarbone. The hormones produced by the thyroid control the rhythm of many activities in the body. These include the rate at which calories are burned and how fast the heart beats. Thyroid diseases include goiter (enlargement), nodules, cancer, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

The decrease in the production of its hormones is called Hypothyroidism, and the excess is Hyperthyroidism. It is important to diagnose and treat it promptly.

Abnormal growth of its cells can form nodules. Most nodules are benign, but a small percentage may be cancerous.

Brushing and flossing are everyday ways to keep your teeth bright, white and healthy. Still, if you might feel like your smile is lacking some sparkle or is more yellow than it used to be, you’re not alone.

When the American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry asked people what they’d most like to improve about their smile, the most common response was whiter teeth. The American Association of Orthodontists also found that nearly 90% of patients requested tooth whitening.

Over time, your teeth can go from white to not-so-bright for a number of reasons. Coffee, tea and red wine are some major staining culprits. What do they have in common? Intense color pigments called chromogens that attach to the white, outer part of your tooth.

Two chemicals found in tobacco create stubborn stains: Tar and nicotine. Tar is naturally dark. Nicotine is colorless until it’s mixed with oxygen. Then, it turns into a yellowish, surface-staining substance.

The thyroid is a gland whose hormones have important functions such as regulating the body’s metabolism and balancing the functionality of other organs and systems.

Thyroid Gland

Thyroid hormones are essential for the development of the nervous system in children and for the control of metabolic activities in adults, affecting the function of virtually every organ in our body. Diseases of the thyroid gland are among the most common in medical practice.

Let’s get a few things straight at the outset: the thyroid is an organ and not a disease. It is very common to hear that people «have a thyroid», as if that were a health problem.

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck, in front of the windpipe. The thyroid produces two hormones called triiodothyronine and thyroxine, better known as T3 and T4, respectively. These hormones are responsible for the body’s metabolism, i.e. the way the body stores and expends energy.

When the thyroid works too much and produces hormones in excess, what we call hyperthyroidism occurs. When it works little, or when it has been surgically removed due to a tumor, what we call hypothyroidism occurs.

Therefore, there are some general symptoms, with which you should be attentive, as they may indicate problems or alterations in the functioning of the thyroid gland, these are:

  • Discomfort in the throat and neck
  • Difficulty concentrating and lack of memory.
  • Hair loss and dry skin
  • Weight gain or loss
  • Drowsiness, tiredness and muscle aches and pains
  • Mood disturbances and constipation
  • Palpitations and high blood pressure

The treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on three pillars: diet, physical exercise and medication. The aim is to maintain blood glucose levels within the normal range in order to minimize the risk of complications associated with the disease. In many patients with type 2 diabetes, medication would not be necessary if excess weight were controlled and a regular physical exercise program was carried out. However, insulin replacement therapy or oral hypoglycemic drugs are often necessary.

Alterations of
Thyroid Gland


Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. This deficiency can affect heart rate, body temperature and all aspects of metabolism. The most common causes today are Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, thyroid surgeries, exposure to radiation therapy and iodine deficiency in the diet.


Hyperthyroidism is the production of too much thyroxine hormone. The main cause of this pathology is the «Graves’ disease» which is of autoimmune origin, it can also be due to high doses of levothyroxine in people with thyroid surgery or hypothyroidism.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer itself is not uncommon, accounting for approximately 2% of all cancers in the body. It is more common in women than in men and most cases occur between the ages of 25 and 65.

Home whitening gel usually needs to be applied daily for two to three weeks. Over-the-counter kits also are widely available for home use. They provide trays to hold the gel, or whitening strips that stick to your teeth. Talk to your dentist if you want to use these home products. Be sure to follow directions to avoid overuse and possible damage to your teeth and mouth.

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